Preventing another Genocide in Rwanda and in Eastern Congo
Litofe Sloj Silika, PhD
Political Economy & Public Policy
Specialist in Comparative & Developmental Economy
Fulbright & World bank Scholar
1. The root cause of the vicious circle of violence and genocide in Rwanda and in eastern Congo is: The lack of institutions capable of guaranteeing equal access to resources, power, and privileges in Rwanda. This lack of institutions is, itself, linked to the notion of ethnic supremacy (i.e . a kind of Hitler's Arian or Perfect Race ) of the Tutsi over the Hutu and the Twa in Rwanda.
2. This notion of Tutsi supremacy, which dominated in Rwanda's pre-colonial and colonial era, is routed in a discriminatory and demeaning division of labor stating that: The Tutsi were born to rule, the Hutu to farm and/or do the heavy duty jobs, and the Twa to serve both the Tutsi and the Hutu. Unfortunately, this sordid division of labor is still prevalent in today's Rwanda of Paul Kagame and his hardliners high-ranking Tutsi extremist military officers.
3. This notion of ethnic supremacy and its subsequent division of labor do not exist in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) which is an agglomeration of over 450 ethnic groups. Indeed, in the DRC, each of its 450 ethnic groups is, numerically, a minority given that none of them dominates when compared to the sum of the rest. In other words, in the DRC, Congolese are, without exception, all minorities and/or endangered species. As such, they must all be protected indiscriminately.
4. Apart from intermittent skirmishes between some ethnic groups (i.e. the Lulua and Luba in the Grand Kasai, the Hema and Lendu in Ituri, in the Province Orientale, etc.); Congolese people do not have and/or do not cherish the culture of vicious circle of violence, vengeance, retaliation, and definitely not that of genocide. For generations, most of Congo's 450 ethnic groups live not only in peace with one another, but they live in perfect harmony.
5. The vicious circle of violence and political instability that has taken roots in eastern Congo since October 1996 has two critical explanations. The first explanation is the inability of Congo's government to protect its borders, its people and their properties due, among other things, to the lack a visionary and pragmatic leaders not only in Kinshasa; but also at all levels of Congo's territorial and administrative structural management; coupled with Congo's lack of a strong and well-trained, well-organized, well-equipped, and well-motivated National Army. The second explanation is: Kagame and his hardliners, Tutsi extremist officers' determination to permanently have access to eastern Congo's natural resources, notably to the 3Ts G (i.e. Tantalum, Tin, Tungsten, and Gold) that the Dodd Franck Act 1502 terms “ conflict minerals ”; in order to not only perpetually maintain their dominion over the Hutu and Twa in Rwanda; but also to extend this dominion over most other ethnic groups in eastern Congo, and in the Great Lakes Region.
6. Given these facts, hope for preventing genocide in Rwanda and eastern Congo is two folds. First, the ability of Congo's government to protect its borders, its people, and their properties; by creating a strong and well-trained, well-organized, well-equipped, and well-motivated national army; and by severely punishing infiltrators and traitors. Second, the willingness and/or determination of the Security Council, the USA, Britain, Canada, Germany, France, and Belgium, to unequivocally denounce and condemn Kagame and his high ranking Tutsi extremist officers' invasion of eastern Congo; force them to immediately and unconditionally withdraw Rwanda's troops in eastern Congo; and urge Kagame and his high ranking Tutsi extremist officers to adopt and implement the Constitutional and/or protective democracy in Rwanda.
7. If Kagame and his top-ranking officers notably, the Defense Minister, General James Kabarebe; the Defense Forces Chief of Staff, General Charles Kayonga; the Permanent Secretary of the ministry of Defense, General Jack Nziza; and Rwandan army division commander, General Emmanuel Ruvusha; refuse to immediately and unconditionally comply; the Security Council, the USA, Britain, Canada, Germany, France, and Belgium must treat them in the same way they treated Charles Taylor for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone; and/or as they treated Saddam Hussein for his foolishness of invading Kuwait.
In an interview on the sideline of the “ U.N. Millennium Summit ” on Wednesday September 6, 2000, Paul Kagame, the President of Rwanda, defended Rwanda's mid-October 1996 invasion and occupation of eastern Congo on the grounds that, this invasion and occupation were the best safeguard against a repeat of genocide in Rwanda. For Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists, Rwanda's invasion and occupation of eastern Congo were, and still are, a legitimate effort to root out the remnants of Hutu extremist fighters; notably, the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), and former Rwandan Armed Forces (ex-FAR / Interahamwe), mostly responsible for Rwanda's 1994 genocide that decimated over 800,000 innocent Tutsis and Hutu moderates. For Kagame and most of his comrades, these genociders hiding into eastern Congo's jungles and mountains, continue to launch military cross borders crusades in Rwanda.
Since Rwanda's first invasion, that of mid-October 1996, to present; Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists have, for over than fifteen years, succeeded to fool the Security Council and the international community at large on the grounds of fearing the repeat of genocide in Rwanda. The word “ genocide” has ever since become a powerful propaganda machine for Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists. This is because, Kagame, his follows Tutsi extremists, and their backers, notably the multinational corporations (MNCs) involved in the illegal exploitation of Congo's natural resources and other Congo's forms of wealth, have ever since managed to effectively use the word “ genocide ” not only to cover up their tribal ethnic hegemonic ambitions in the Great Lakes Region in general, and in eastern Congo in particular; but also, to effectively cover up the genocide that they, themselves, repeatedly organize and perpetrate against thousands of innocent people in Rwanda and eastern Congo. Under the fallacious alibi of avoiding the repeat of genocide in Rwanda, Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists' numerous acts of genocide, terrorism, barbarism, vandalism, and extreme savageries, in Rwanda and in eastern Congo, are literally ignored by the Security Council, and the international community at large.
Massacre of innocent Children
Decimation of Men and women Massacre of elephants
Countless of homeless and displaced people
Basically, by succeeding to fool the Security Council and the international community at large; Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists' fifteen years of Massacre of innocent children, decimation of men and women, massacre of elephants and other endangered species in eastern Congo, countless of homeless and displaced people, and the systematic looting of Congo's natural resources, all of these acts extreme savageries, remain unpunished.
The only people that Kagame, his fellows Tutsi extremists, and their backers did not, could not, and will never succeed to fool, are the Congolese people. Indeed, according to the Congolese people, if the FDLR and/or ex-FAR/Interahamwe were realistically a threat to Rwanda, how can Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists logically explain to the Security Council and to the international community at large, the re-enlistment of the same FDLR and/or ex-FAR/Interahamwe into the so-called M23 rebellion? In fact, hammered the Congolese people, how Kagame and his comrades can explain to the Security Council and the international community at large the fact that, the FDLR and/or ex-FAR/Interahamwe, who were duly demobilized, disarmed, repatriated, resettled, and reintegrated into Rwanda's society; be recruited by Rwanda's top ranking military officers; provided guns and ammunitions, and sent back to join the so-called M23 rebellion in eastern Congo, as attested by the addendum of the recent report of UN Experts --an independent and credible panel monitoring violations of the Congo sanctions regime ? And after being sent back to Congo; the culprits, notably Kalama, and his top ranking military officers, cynically turn around and say: Rwanda's troops will never withdraw from eastern Congo; so long as the problem of the FDLR and ex-FAR/Interahamwe will remain unsolved.
The irony of this argument is that, Rwanda had ten golden years to get rid of the FDLR and ex-FAR/Interahamwe in eastern Congo. It did not. For the purpose of our discussion, let remind ourselves that since Rwanda's first invasion, that of mid-October 1996, to its second invasion, that of August 2, 1998; Rwandan Defense Forces, via general James Kabarebe who, at the time, was the Joint Chief of Staff of Congo's Army under Mzee Laurent Desire Kabila, controlled the entire eastern Congo. Consequently, Rwanda could easily and effectively get rid of FDLR and ex-FAR/Interahamwe. It did not. Furthermore, from 1998 to 2003, Rwandan Defense Forces, through the Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD-Goma), a pro-Rwanda rebel group, because created, trained, equipped, and restructured at Kagame's and his fellows Tutsi extremists high ranking officers' free will; controlled much of eastern Congo. Rwanda could take advantage of this opportunity to effectively get rid of FDLR and ex-FAR/Interahamwe. It did not. Finally, from 2003 and 2006, under the 1+4 regime, Rwandan Defense Forces, via Azarias Ruberwa, a Tutsi extremist, vice-president in charge of defense, security, and politics, in Congo, has the golden opportunity to get, once for all, rid of the FDLR and ex-FAR/Interahamwe. Once again, it did not. From time to time (i.e. in January 2009) joint operations between Rwanda's and Congo's troops were organized in order to get rid of the FDLR and ex-FAR/Interahamwe in eastern Congo. Still the FDLR and ex-FAR/Interahamwe did not vanish.
But, at the same time, all that Kagame's and his fellows Tutsi extremist high ranking officers did during all of this time, was to excel with impunity in their act of terrorism, barbarism, vandalism, extreme savageries, and genocide in eastern Congo. Indeed, rapes, tortures, murders, starvation of Congolese people, and pillage of Congo's natural resources are largely documented in the following documents and/or reports:
International Rescue Committee (IRC), “Mortality in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo”, May 2001;
Medecins Sans Frontieres (i.e. Doctors without borders), “Violence and Access to Health, Results of Five Epidemiological Surveys”, December 2001;
Nightline Series, “Heart of Darkness”, Monday January 21 - Friday January 25, 2002;
Human Rights Watch , “Congo: Kisangani Residents Again Under Fire”, May 24, 2002;
“The War within the War, Sexual Violence against Women and Girls in Eastern Congo”, June 2002; and in
- United Nations' DR Congo “Mapping Report”, of October 1, 2010.
Given these facts, the most important lesson that emerges from the over fifteen years of Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists misadventure in eastern Congo is that: Kagame and his comrades never accepted their wrongdoing and/or criminal activities in Congo. They always deny, deny and deny, even when mountain of evidence on the ground proves the contrary. At this juncture, it is critical to mention three of their big lies and/or denials.
Their first denial is that: Tough Rwanda's troops were deep inside Congo's territory for over six months fighting alongside the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo, ADFL's rebels in mid-October 1996 to topple late Marshall Mobutu Sese Seko; Kagame and his comrades continued to categorically and systematically deny their presence in Congo. However, after the fall of late Marshall Mobutu Sese Seko on May 17, 1997; in his attempt of playing the regional hero card, in his interview with the Washington Post Edition on July 9, 1997, Kagame stunned the Security Council and the International Community at large by proudly claiming that “members of the Rwanda Patriotic Army (RPA) were the ones who planned and executed the first invasion of Congo”.
Their second big lie is that: Although Rwanda's regular troops have been fighting alongside the anti-Mzee Laurent Desire Kabila Rally for Congolese Democracy, RCD/Goma's rebels since August 2, 1998; Kagame and his associates continued to shamelessly and consistently deny their presence deep inside Congo's territory. Without Mandela's charisma and wisdom, Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists could still, until today, continue to shamelessly deny the presence of Rwanda's troops deep inside Congo's territory, despite concrete evidence on ground proving the contrary.
Their third big lie is: Rwanda's claims according to which, Rwanda sent troops, arms, and ammunition to back the anti- Mzee Laurent Desire Kabila Rally for Congolese Democracy, RCD/Goma's rebels on August 2, 1998; because Mzee Laurent Desire Kabila's government was harboring the FDLR and ex-FAR/Interahamwe, people who were responsible for the 1994 Rwanda's genocide that decimated over 800,000 innocent Tutsi and moderate Hutu. Facts on the ground prove that this was also another lie.
Given these lies and misrepresentations, the Security Council and the international community at large should not be shocked by president Kagame and his Foreign Minister, Louise Mushikiwabo's recent denials of Rwanda's undisputed supports to the so-called M23 rebellion. Indeed, though substantial evidence contained in the addendum of the recent report of UN Experts attests that Rwanda, through its top military officials , notably Defense Minister General James Kabarebe, the Defense Forces Chief of Staff General Charles Kayonga, the Permanent Secretary of the ministry of Defense General Jack Nziza, and Rwandan army division commander General Emmanuel Ruvusha, is providing ammunition and guns, health care, training, and new recruits to the so-called M23 rebellion ; and is protecting Bosco Taganda, a war criminal indicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) at the Hague ; Paul Kagame and his Foreign Minister, Louise Mushikiwabo, have no shame whatsoever to categorically deny it.
This is the reason why, since mid-October 1996 to present , Congolese people have repeatedly and consistently underlined to the Security Council and the international community at large that, Kagame's regular troops, along with the rebel groups that him and his high raking military officers created, trained, equipped, and continue to restructure at their free will, invaded eastern Congo in order to dismember Congo, and as such, gently extend their tribal territorial, economic, and hegemonic ambition in Congo, in general; and eastern Congo in particular. Basically, it is from the perspective of dismembering Congo that , on March 18, 2001, while answering to two key questions that Robin Wright, journalist at Los Angeles Times, put to him; president Kagame, consciously and/or unconsciously, revealed his determination of dismembering Congo in this way:
Question : "Central Africa is facing the most serious set of crises since the European colonial rulers in the 1960s, problems underscored by the assassination in January of President Laurent Kabila. Congo has armies from five nations occupying its land. Will it ever be controlled by one government again?"
Kagame's Answer : "May be one government, one man sitting in Kinshasa, does not fully address the problems of people who are living in a huge country with the poorest infrastructure on the continent. May be the Congo would be better off with a federal government, with some provinces having some autonomy to govern themselves, rather than always tying them to the central government in Kinshasa. [ But for the moment ] it's one country, at least in terms of geographic interpretation, [ and ] the countries that are in the Congo have not claimed any piece of territory."
Question: "How important is it for the rest of Africa to keep Congo together?"
Kagame's Answer : "Rwanda today is different from what it was 100 years ago. It used to be bigger than it is. It was dismembered and nothing happened."
Basically, what these Kagame's responses are telegraphing to the Security Council and to the International Community at large is that, as 100 years ago Rwanda was dismembered and nothing happened; the DRC can also be dismembered and/or Balkanized today and nothing will happen. This is a big miscalculation for his part, because as Congolese people have demonstrated it in several occasions, the Democratic Republic of Congo will NEVER, NEVER, and EVER be partitioned either “de facto” or “de jure”, because of Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists' ruses, camouflages, and viciousness.
Indeed, say the Congolese people, if Moise Tshombe, a Congolese, native of the mineral-rich province of Katanga and leader of the Katanga secession of July 11, 1960; and Albert Kalonji, another Congolese, native of the naturally rich province of Kasai, and leader of the Kasai secession of August 8, 1960; did not succeed to balkanized Congo during its early age of independence in the 60s; despite active support that they received from some important Western MNCs; Congolese people just do not see, how Kagame, a non-Congolese nationals, even though effectively using some Congolese marplots, will today succeed in his vicious attempt of dismembering Congo. As I stressed it in my April 7, 1999 intervention: “Is the Split of DR Congo a done deal?” To paraphrase the United States pledge of allegiance, t he Democratic Republic of Congo is, and will remain: One Nation, under God, Indivisible, with Love, Unity, Peace, Liberty, Justice, and Equal Opportunity in the pursuit of happiness for all Congolese.
So, Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists must keep in their mind that their malicious dream of annexing the “ Grand Kivu ” (i.e. North-Kivu, South-Kivu, and Maniema) , to their tiny Rwanda is just a dream. Not a single inch of Congo's territory will be confiscated by their tiny Country; and they should make no mistake about it. To me, this Kagame's and his high raking military officers' determination of dismembering Congo, in order to extend their tribal territorial, economic, and hegemonic ambition in Congo; and in turn, secure the annexation of the “ Grand Kivu ”, to the tiny Rwanda; an act that could allow them to take advantage of eastern Congo's numerous natural resources, is the kernel of most Tutsi extremists and their backers' misadventures in Congo. Rwanda's officials persistent demands for the convenience of a second Berlin Conference, in order to revise borders set by the first Berlin Conference in 1885 corroborate my assessment. This is also the key reason for which most of the National Congress for the Defense of the People, CNDP's officers, notably General Laurent Kundabatware Mihigo, General Bosco Taganda, Colonel Jules Mutebusi, (i.e. all, actually Rwanda's citizen and not Congolese citizen as such), and most of their fellows Tutsi extremists never agree to be relocated and/or permutated to other Congo's provinces.
Congolese (i.e. Actually Rwandan) warlord Congolese (i.e. Actually Rwandan)
G eneral Laurent Nkundabatware Mihigo warlord General Bosco Ntaganda
Congolese (i.e. Actually Rwandan)
Warlord Colonel Jules Mutebusi
These three Tutsi extremist officers above mentioned, with the backing of Rwanda's Top military officers, explicitly named in the addendum of the recent report of UN Experts, are the one who control much of mining stations of coltan in eastern Congo. Indeed, coltan, a metallic ore comprising Niobium and Tantalum, is the key ingredients used in the production of cell phones, computers, DVD players, videogames, and all kinds of electronics, jet engines, missiles, ships, and weapons systems. For the purpose of our analysis, it must be pointed out that sixty-four percent (64%) of the world's reserve of Coltan is located in eastern Congo. In addition to coltan, these Tutsi extremist officers and their followers control also much of mining stations of cassiterite which is the most important source of tin, found in large quantity in the district of Walikale in eastern Congo. T he struggle for access, exploitation, and trade of Tantalum, Tin, Tungsten, and Gold (i.e. 3Ts G), mostly concentrated in eastern Congo, under the condition of armed conflicts between rebel groups of Rwanda's and Uganda's obedience, the Mai-Mai, the Democratic Forces the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), the ex-FAR/Interahamwe, the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) of Joseph Kony, and to some degree some regular Congolese Generals; is what the Dodd Franck Act (1502) refers to as conflict minerals.
The notorious Ugandan terrorist and
War Criminal Joseph Kony
Now, it becomes self-evident why Rwanda has ever since become one of the world most important exporters of coltan and cassiterite, mineral that it does not possess, as such. And why Rwanda, through its Defense Minister, General James Kabarebe; the Defense Forces Chief of Staff, General Charles Kayonga; the Permanent Secretary of the ministry of Defense, General Jack Nziza; and Rwandan army division commander, General Emmanuel Ruvusha; is providing ammunition and guns, health care, training, and new recruits to the so-called M23 mutineers, and is protecting the notorious war criminal, Bosco Taganda whose forces continue to commit human rights abuses and engage in illegal minerals trafficking. For Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists, the control of North-Kivu, South-Kivu, and the Maniema becomes a question of life and death.
Paul Kagame & General Kabarebe
Okapi killed at the Okapi Wildlife Reserve
So, given these facts, what can be done in order to put, once for all, to rest Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists' misadventures in eastern Congo? Three levels of strategies and/or policies must be considered: Local, regional, and international.
I. At the Local Level
At this level, it must be pointed out that most Tutsi extremists do not believe in Round Table, negotiations, peace agreements, treaties, and the likes. To most of them, to negotiate means: To lie, to distract, to buy time, and to militarily organize themselves in order to surprise their so-called enemies at the first opportunity. This is the reason why, despite:
The implementation of the “Accord Global et Inclusif”;
The signing of peace treaties between the DRCongo and Rwanda in Pretoria, in South Africa, on July 30, 2002, and between the DRCongo and Uganda in Luanda, in Angola, on September 06, 2002;
The conclusion under the supervision of the United States of a tripartite treaty between Rwanda , Uganda , and the DRCongo in August 2002;
The establishment of joint mechanisms of verification, signed by DRCongo and Rwanda on September 2004 in New York ;
The signing of a peace treaty between 11 (eleven) Presidents of Sub-Saharan Africa on November 20, 2004 in Dar es -Salaam, in Tanzania;
The successful organization of free, fair, and democratic election in DRCongo in 2006; lying the foundation of the establishment of democratic institutions with, mutatis mutandis, a clear-cut separation of power between the Executive, the Legislative, and the Judiciary; at the Central government, Provincial and local levels;
And the organization on November 28, 2011 of Congo's second democratic election since the end of the Mobutu era; with eleven candidates competing for the presidency, and about 19,000 candidates competing for 500 seats in Parliament;
Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists still continue to destabilize Congo by, overtly and/or covertly creating, recruiting, training, and supporting rebel groups in eastern Congo . The case of Nkundabatware Mihigo and Bosco Taganda with their National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), and now Makenga and his M23, are very illustrative. What does this mean? This means, there will never be a lasting peace in eastern Congo; so long as Congo will not have a strong and well-organized, well-trained, well-equipped, and well-motivated National Army. This is because, the only language that Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists and war criminals operating with impunity in the Great Lakes Region in general, and in eastern Congo in particular, understand is the language of force: “ Who kills by the sword, perishes by the sword ” . This is the only language that these terrorists and war criminals understand.
However, as we have tirelessly put it before, given that the creation of a well trained, well equipped, and well-motivated Congo's National Army is an ambitious endeavor which requires patience and consequent and/or appropriate means; Congo's government must immediately:
Accelerate the creation of a “ Commando of quick Intervention ”. This commando, constituted by men and women in uniforms, chosen according to clear and well defined criteria; must be well trained, well equipped, and well motivated. That is, it must be able to intervene in fifteen minutes in any corner of Congo's territory. Besides, in order to put an end to the military humiliations, which Congo has today become victim from its Eastern neighbors; brigades of this commando should be established in Lubumbashi, Kisangani, Bukavu, and Goma.
Congo government must therefore create a Taskforce in charge of managing the invasion and occupation. This taskforce must be constituted by military and civilian brain trusts in charge of constantly thinking about strategies and/or policies capable of effectively and efficiently putting an end to Kagame's misadventure in eastern Congo.
Congo government must make it very clear to the Security Council and to the International Community that, what is going on now is eastern Congo is not a rebellion and/or a mutiny; but it is another well planned Rwanda's aggression against the Democratic Republic of Congo . As such, in order protect its territorial integrity and lives of its over 71 million inhabitants and their properties; Congo's Government must ask the Security Council, the United States, Britain, France, Belgium, and the International Community, to publicly denounce and vigorously condemn this new Rwanda's invasion and occupation; force Kagame to unconditionally withdraw his troops from eastern Congo; and urge him to adopt and implement Constitutional and/or protective democracy in Rwanda.
Congo government must ask the Security Council, the United States, Britain, France, Belgium, and the International Community to give to Rwanda an ultimatum of compliance of no more than 7 days, to immediately and unconditionally withdraw its troops from eastern Congo; to s top creating, training, arming the so-called M23 rebels; to effectively putting an end to its direct and/or indirect participation on the illegal exploitation of Congo's natural resources and other forms of wealth.
If Rwanda does not comply, in order to avoid the repeat of another Genocide in the Great Lakes Region, to preserve the peace, and to put an end to the sufferings of millions innocent people in the region; the Security Council, the United States, Britain, France, Belgium, and the International Community at large, must swiftly act against Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists, in the same way they swiftly acted in the Persian Gulf to put an end to Saddam Hussein's foolishness. If they fail to do so, Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists will never completely withdraw from eastern Congo. These terrorists and war criminals might always be able to manufacture alibis and excuses in order to promote their tribal territorial, economic, and hegemonic ambition in eastern Congo.
Congo government must ask the Security Council, the US Department of States, Office of the Coordinator for Counter Terrorism, the United States, Britain, France, Belgium, and the International Community , to list M23 as Foreign Terrorist Organizations; in the same way they listed al -Qaida; Joseph Kony's Lord Resistance Army (LRA); the Hutu's Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), the former Rwandan Armed Forces, ex-FAR/ Interahamwe, and many other foreign terror organizations.
Finally, Congo's government must ask the Security Council, the United States, Britain, France, Belgium, and the International Community to help its “ Commando of quick Intervention ” with logistical supports capable of permitting it to effectively disarm and demobilize diverse rebel groups marauding inside Congo's territory.
II. At the Regional Level
At this level, it must be pointed out that t he root cause of the vicious circle of violence and impunity in Rwanda is the lack of institutions capable of guaranteeing equal access to resources, power, and privileges. To me, this is one of the major factors that led to the Rwanda's 1994 Genocide.
This lack of institutions capable of guaranteeing equal access to resources, powers, and privileges is itself, a function of the notion of ethnic supremacy that existed in pre-colonial Rwanda, and that the colonialists promoted during the colonial era. The notion of ethnic supremacy, with its subsequent division stating that, the Tutsi were born to rule; the Hutu to farm and/or do heavy duty jobs; and the Twa to serve both the Tutsi and the Hutu. Unless otherwise started, this division of labor focusing on the ethnic supremacy of Tutsi, that Kagame and most of his fellows Tutsi extremists continue to embrace and proudly celebrate, in order to extend their tribal hegemonic ambitions and dominion, not only over the Hutu and Twa; but also over all other ethnic groups in the Great Lakes Region; is a recipe that will continue to perpetuate, for generations to come, the vicious circle of vengeance, retaliation, mass killings, and genocide in the Great Lakes Region in general, and in Rwanda in particular.
Furthermore, the impunity that Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists -- notably General Laurent Nkundabatware, General Bosco Ntaganda, colonel Jules Mutebusi, and Colonel Makenga that Kagame malignly succeeded to post within Congo's Army as Congo's citizens whereas, in reality, these war criminals are everything else except Congo's citizens-- continue to enjoy, is adroitly connected to the notion of Tutsi ethnic supremacy over the Hutu and Twa. In this regard, it is imperative that the Security Council, the United States, Britain, France, Belgium, and the International Community at large make it clear to Kagame and to most of his fellows Tutsi extremists that:
“ A ll men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to affect their safety and happiness” (See, United States Declaration of Independence).
Rwanda's security concerns lies in:
B1. The adoption and implementation of the constitutional democracy in Rwanda;
B2. The accountability of those responsible for the shooting down of former President Habyarima's plane. This is the key event which triggered the 1994 genocide. From this standpoint, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, and most Rwanda's Patriotic Army High Commanders during Rwanda's 1994 genocide notably: Paul Kagame, the current president of Rwanda; Rwanda's Army Chief of staff, general James Kabarebe; colonel Kayumba Nyamwasa, colonel Théoneste Lizinde, major Jacob Tumwine, and captain Charles Karamba, must all be brought to Justice.
B3. The accountability of those who are responsible for the vicious circle of violence in Rwanda and Congo. Notorious warlords and terrorists such as: Joseph Kony, the leader of Lord's Resistance Army (LRA); leaders of the Hutu's Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR); General Laurent Nkundabatware Mihigo, General Bosco Ntaganda, colonel Jules Mutebusi, and Colonel Makenga, must all face justice, for war crimes, crimes against humanity, sexual slavery, pillaging, the use of child soldiers, and genocide.
B4.The adoption and implementation of technological innovations in agriculture, manufacturing and services in Rwanda, and the fulfillment of its requirements in terms of education, health and capital;
B5. An effective implementation of family planning programs in Rwanda; and not in the invasion and occupation of eastern Congo.
In addition to the policies above mentioned, Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists must understand that they don't have the monopoly of aggression. Before that it becomes too little too late for them, they must realize and keep into their mind that: Congolese are not Hutu . Therefore, the single best way to solve Rwanda's problem of excess population, land scarcity, and among other things, to allow Rwanda to have legal and legitimate access to eastern Congo's natural resources is: To envision the possibility of Rwanda becoming one of Congo's Districts .
Indeed, given that Rwanda's total superficies is by far less than that of many large Districts of Congo, it will be unfair to elevate Rwanda's territory at the level of any of Congo's 11 Provinces; while keeping several of Congo's large Districts to their level of Districtdom. Thus, by politically and administratively accepting the incorporation of Rwanda into Congo as one of its numerous districts; who ever could and/or will be elected in former Rwanda's territory, which will then become one of Congo's districts, shall be called: District Commissioner ; instead of Governor and/or President. The same logic can be applied to Burundi.
The government of Rwanda could, in this matter, organize at the appropriate moment a referendum to determine what they think about this peaceful and original proposition. A this his junction, it must also be underlined that: Any attempt to revitalize the sub-regional economic organization namely, the Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (ECGLC), prior of solving Kagame and his Tutsi fellows Tutsi extremists' tribal territorial, economic, and hegemonic ambition in the Great Lakes Region in general; and in eastern Congo in particular, is doom to fail.
III. At the International Level
At this level it must be pointed out that Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists' atrocities in the Great Lakes Region in general and in eastern Congo in particular are by far greater than the cruelties that Charles Taylor, Liberia's former president, committed in Sierra Leone by facilitating the training of Sierra Leone's Revolutionary United Front (RUF) recruits in Liberia, helping them to start RUF's invasion of Sierra Leone, to loot its diamond reserves, and engage to the RUF's terror campaign in Sierra Leone ; and those that president El Bashir of northern Soudan is still committing in Darfur, combined. The following facts corroborate my assessment.
B eing the commander in chief of the “ Front Patriotique Rwandais ” (FPR) during Rwanda's offensive to topple Juvenal Habyarimana; Kagame role in the shooting down of the plane that killed president Habyarimana, and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the president of Burundi on April 7, 1994, is self evident. Indeed, unless otherwise stated, Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists' barbaric assassination of these two prominent Hutu leaders is, and unquestionably remains, the key event that triggered Hutu extremists' savage and unjustifiable massacre of over 800,000 innocent Tutsis and Hutus moderate. Credible evidence and relevant documentations in this matter abounds. However, despite these evidences, as usual, on October 24, 2000 Kagame dismissed his role in the shooting down of Habyarima's plane by saying that these evidences are “baseless”.
In his quality of commander in chief of Rwanda's Defense Forces, Kagame could not possibly be innocent of the genocide of over 230,000 Hutu refugees in the vicinities of Congo's town of Kisangani, in the former Zaire, and in the jungle of Equateur during their first invasion of mid- October 1996 to topple late Marshall Mobutu Sese Seko. Kagame's self-admission, in an interview with the Washington Post Edition on July 9, 1997 that, members of his Patriotic Army (RPA) are the ones who planned and executed the first invasion of Congo tells it all.
According to the International Rescue Committee study “Mortality Study, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo”, since Museveni and Kagame's troops invaded Congo on August 2, 1998 to overthrow Mzee Laurent Desire Kabila; over 5.4 millions of innocent Congolese have so far been decimated. Moreover, thousands of innocent Congolese were massacred during multiple battles between Rwanda's and Uganda's troops in Kisangani. Thousands of others were massacred in Kasika, Makabola, Ngweshe, Burinye, Kamituga, Kasala, Budi, and Mwenga, not to mention several cases of women who were buried life, the spread of HIV and other infectious diseases, the systematic pillage of Congo's natural resources, the massive destruction of Congo's ecosystem, as well as the destruction of Congolese's properties.
According to the United Nations report published in the National Post of November 30, 2000, “hunger, disease, homelessness, and abuse have affected 16 million people in the DR Congo –almost one-third of Congo's 71 million inhabitants”.
Given that the Security Council, the United States, Britain, Canada, France, Belgium, and the International Community at large, helped the International Criminal Court (ICC) at the Hague to indict and find Charles Taylor Guilty, for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone; I don't see why they cannot do, at the appropriate moment, the same to help indict and bring to justice Kagame and his fellows Tutsi extremists who, for the moment, continue to excel with impunity in perpetuating war crimes, crimes against humanity, sexual slavery, pillaging, the use of child soldiers, and genocide in the Great Lakes Region in general, and in eastern Congo, in particular.
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July 28, 2012